Introduction to Management


According to Koontaz and O’ Donnell, “Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized group.”
According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”

The definitions above show that it is a continuous process of getting things done by proper use of manpower and other resources. It also helps to control, organize and co-ordinate the function of an organization.

Characteristics of Management:

As blood, soul & mind are important for the life, same as management is for business. Someone has  written,  “Management  is  the  soul  of  Industrial  development.”  The  progress  and  prosperity  of business organization is based on management. It is the brain of an organization, without management nothing can be done in the business. So, it has some characteristics which are as follows.
1.   Management is universal
2.   Management is a social process
3.   Goal oriented
4.   Science & Art

5.   Group Effort

6.   Intangible
7.   Required at all level
8.   Separate from ownership
9.   Purposeful activity
1.   Management is universal
Management  is  taken as universal  activity  whether an  organization is  big or small, government,  hospitals,  schools,  colleges,  etc.  management  is  needed.  Wherever  there  is  a human activity there is management. Every step of life requires management because with the help of management each & every task can be handled easily, properly & effectively.
2.   Management as a social process
Management  involves  dealing  with  the  people,  the  effort  of  human  beings  are controlled & directed by the management. It has social obligation to make efficient use of scarce material for the benefit of the society.
3.   Goal oriented
Effective  management  is  always  management  by  objectives  and  also  it  has  no justification to exist without goals. An efficient and good management tries to achieve the predetermined goals by the minimum resources. Management is established only to achieve the goal. Hence, it is goal oriented.
4.   Science & Art
Management is both science and art. It is based on some skills; knowledge is also required to achieve the goals effectively. So, it is concerned with art tough it is not exactly like music or dance.
5.   Group Effort

It deals with group of activities because no individual can do all the activities at the same time. So, it is based on group efforts. It is also used to achieve the common goals with group efforts. A group also can achieve the predetermined goals easily and effectively.

6.   Intangible
It is important but unseen process of the organization. We can only feel it. It cannot be seen functioning with eyes but can feel by observing the result.
7.   Required at all level
It is one of such process which requires all level, top level, middle level & low level of an organization. According to levels the process of management is different.
8.   Separate from ownership:
Management & ownership are two different things in a company. In a company, shareholders are the owner and managerial work is in the hand of ‘Board of Directors’.
9.   Purposeful activity

The activity of management is connected with planning, direction, controlling, staffing, etc. and also  there  is  some  purpose  behind  it.  Its  main aim  is  to  achieve  the  economic  and social objective. Without any purpose management cannot be formed.

Functions of Management:

In competitive days management become a typical job, a manager have to perform different types of managerial job to achieve the goals of the organization. It is said that, “management is what manager does,” Management is that type of process which requires different level of the requirement of the organization. The functions are defined differently by experts. The main branches of function of management are as follows.
1.   Planning
2.   Organizing
3.   Directing

4.   Staffing

5.   Controlling

1.   Planning:
It involves the forecasting of future problem and selecting the proper course of action to solve the problem. It may be either for a short period or longer or both type. The main element of planning are what should be done? How shall be done? Who will be responsible for doing? How shall be done? Who will be responsible for doing?, etc. Planning is essential for every level of the management. With the help of planning function, a manager can perform organizational activities properly and clearly.
2.   Organizing:

Organized efforts are essential for the success of any enterprise. It involves the division and subdivision of activities into the department, section and job as well as the integration of activities of an organization. It is a collection of various factors like man, machinery, material, money, etc.

3.   Directing:
It is concerned with guiding the people at work for securing their cooperation in the execution of work. It helps in influencing, motivating human resources towards the achievement of organizational goals. The directing function actually starts the work. It guide the human resources how the work be done? With the help of good directing, people can easily obtain their goals.
4.   Staffing:
Men are the biggest asset of an organization. This function of management is also related with human resources. Human resources are very important for proper and regular functioning of an organization. No organization can run without human factor. No enterprise can succeed unless right  men  are  put  on  the  right  job.  The  staffing  process  concerned  with  appointment  of personnel for individual job. It involves the following steps.
i.     Determine the effective man power.
ii.   Set their qualification according to work and remuneration. iii.   Training & recruitment of the employees.

5.   Controlling:

It is the important function in all types of enterprises. It is concerned with measuring and comparing the operating results with plan and take corrective action if any deviation occur. So that similar problem may not occur in future. It involves the following steps.
i.     Laying down norms and standard of desired performance. ii.    Measuring the actual performance.
iii.   Interpreting and comparing the actual performance. iv.   Taking Corrective action.
Level of Management:
The organization may have various levels of management. The simple meaning of the term ‘level’ is the arrangement of managerial position. So, the level of management means dividing the authority and responsibility among the managerial person. The level of management will depend upon the size, technology process, quantity of production, nature of organization, etc. Generally, levels of management are categorized in three types.
1.   Top Level Management
i.   Share Holders
ii.   Board of Directors
iii.   Chief Executive
iv.   Managing Director
2.   Middle-Level Management
i.   Department Head
ii.   Production Manager
iii.   Finance Manager

iv.   Branch Manager

3.   Lower Level Management
i.   Supervision
ii.   Foreman
iii.   Sales Officer
iv.   Accountant
v.   Laborer
1.   Top Level Management:
It is the highest level in managerial process. It is responsible for all over success or failure of organization. It consists of share holders, Board of Directors, Chief Executive, Managing Director, etc. It establishes overall organizational goals & strategies for their achievements. These persons are also responsible for deciding objectives, policies and take final decision. It includes.
i.     Determination of objective of the organization. ii.    Formulate plans & policies
ii.    Formulate plans & policies

iii.   Setup organizational structure.

iv.   To attain resources 4M-Men, Material, Machine & money. v.    It provides overall direction and control the operation.

2.   Middle Level Management
It consist middle order rank of management, such as branch manager, production manager, finance manager, departmental head, superintendent or other persons of some rank. It is also known as functional management. The personnel of middle level management are answerable to top level management and control & order the low level management. They assist the planning, coordinating, motivating, controlling the activities of various department.

The functions of middle-level management are as follows.

i.     Select required no. of employees.

ii.    To provide training the new employees.
iii.   To report and make suitable recommendation to the top level management.
iv.   To motivate the personnel for attaining the goals.
v.    To maintain co-operation and coordination. vi.   To issue instructions for the staff.
3.   Lower Level Management:
It  is  also  known  as  first  line  management,  First  level management  and supervisory management. It includes personnel like fore-man, supervisor, sales officer, finance officer, etc. Their main job is to get work done from other workers and employees who are working directly under them. They receive instructions from middle level management and act in accordance with policies & program laid down by top level management.
The main functions of Low-Level Management are as follows;
i.     To issue the instruction to the workers and supervise and control the work.
ii.    Classify and assign the worker’s job.
iii.   To solve the problem of workers.
iv.   To arrange necessary tools machinery & equipment.
v.    To maintain good relation & discipline among the workers.
Difference between management & administration:


Used to determine the objectives, plans
& policies
Art of getting work done through others.
Decision making function, it frames
Functional activity, which execute the
Used for deciding plans & policies of an
Used for achieving predetermined
Concerned with top level management
Concerned with middle & low level
Its scope is wider than management.
Its scope is limited, it is subordinate of
It is used with reference to non-business
organization like: Government, Institute, Schools, etc.
It is used in reference to business
enterprises, which have an economic motive.
Only related to owners and top level
Only related to employees of any
It requires administrative ability rather
than technical ability.
It requires technical ability rather than
administrative ability.
Main functions are planning &
Main functions are directing & controlling.

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